The Conquests of Syria, Jordan,Lebanon and Palestine
Quite some time ago we had published the first part of out translation of Imam Waaqidi’s laudable and much acclaimed Futoohush Shaam or The Conquests of Shaam which comprehensively details the expansion of Islam to the north of Arabia after the demise of Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam). We commence here a revised edition of our first edition with substantial changes, translating directly from the original Arabic version. With regular posts you will accompany the Noble and Heroic Sahaabah (Radhiyallahu anhum) on their mission to bring the Kalimah Laa ilaaha Illallaah Muhammadur Rasoolullah and the Deen of Islam to the world.
Imam Muhammad Bin
ABOUT THE AUTHOR
Name, Lineage and Title: Muhammad Bin Umar Bin Waaqid, Abu Abdillah, Aslami (in allegiance), Madani, Sahmi, Qaadhi.
Birth: Madinah Munawwarah, year 130 Hijri corresponding to 747 AD. (Al-A’laam of Zirikli, V.6 p.311)
Profession: He used to deal in wheat. Due to some misfortune he lost his entire capital. Following this, in the year 180 AH he went to Iraq during the rule of Haroon Rashid. There he met Haroon Rashid’s minister, Yahya Barmaki who assisted him considerably and was instrumental in him gaining favour with the Khaleefah. Accordingly, Haroon Rashid appointed him as the Qaadhi [Chief Justice] of Baghdad and for the entire duration of his life he remained appointed to this post. (Al-A’laam of Zirikli, V.6 p.311)
An Ocean of History
In Tathkiratul Huffaaz, V.1 p.348, Allaamah Thahabi (d.748) (Rahmatullahi Alaih) conferred him the title of Al-Haafiz Al-Bahr [The Protector, The Ocean]. In other words, he had knowledge as vast as the ocean. Furthermore, Imam Thahabi states:
“In Ilm he held the position of leadership and eminence [over other Ulama].” (Ibid)
In Meezaanul I’tidaal, V.3 p.663, Allaamah Thahabi records the following statement of Mujaahid Bin Moosa:
“I never wrote from anyone with a greater memory than Waaqidi.”
After recording the above statement Allaamah Thahabi states:
“I say that he (Mujaahid Bin Moosa) has spoken the truth. Truly, he (Imam Waaqidi) had reached the pinnacle in his memorization and knowledge of Akhbaar [Annals], Siyar [Biography of Rasoolullah Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam], Maghaazi [Battles], Historical Events, Fiqh, etc.”
In Tathkiratul Huffaaz, V.1 p.348, he [Allaamah Thahabi] states:
“He [Imam Waaqidi] was the leader in the field of Maghaazi and Siyar.”
Khateeb Baghdadi (d.643) writes:
“He [Imam Waaqidi] is among those personalities who have received acclaim in the East and West [of the Islamic Empire]. He is known to all those who have knowledge of the annals of history. Students of Deen, from far and wide, journey to obtain his books on various subjects such as Maghaazi, Siyar, Tabaqaat [Ranks of the Ulama], Biography of Nabi (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam), worldly events in the life of Nabi (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) and after his demise, Fiqh, Differences of the Ulama in Hadeeth, etc.” (Taareekh-e-Baghdad, V.3 p.3)
- 1. His renowned and venerable teachers are:
- 2. Imam-e-A’zam Abu Haneefah
- 3. Imam Maalik
- 4. Imam Ibn Juraij
- 5. Ibn Ajlaan
- 6. Ma’mar
- 7. Thowr Bin Yazeed
- 8. There were many others as well.
May Allah Ta’ala show mercy unto all of them!
- 1. His well-known students are:
- 2. Muhammad Bin Sa’d Haatib Al-Waaqidi
- 3. Katheer Bin Yazeed
- 4. Isma’eel Bin Mujammi’
- 5. Ahmad Bin Mansoor Ar-Ramaadi
- 6. Mujaahid Bin Moosa
- 7. Imam Ibn Abi Shaibah
- 8. There were others as well.
Allah’s mercy be upon them.
- 1. Al-Maghaazin Nabawiyyah [Prophetic Battles] – 2 volumes, printed
- 2. Fat-hu Afreeqiyyah [The Conquest of Africa] – 2 volumes, printed
- 3. Fat-hul Ajam [The Conquest of the Non-Arabs] – printed
- 4. Fat-hul Misr wal Iskandariyyah [The Conquest of Egypt and Alexandria] – printed
- 5. Tafseerul Qur’aan [Commentary of the Qur’aan]
- 6. Akhbaaru Makkah [The Annals of Makkah]
- 7. At-Tabaqaat [The Ranks]
- 8. Futoohul Iraq [The Conquests of Iraq]
- 9. Seeratu Abi Bakr wa Wafaatuh [The Life and Death of Abu Bakr]
10. Taareekhul Fuqaha [The History of the Jurists]
11. Al-Jumal [The Phrases]
12. Kitaabul Musannifeen [The Book of Authors]
13. Maqtalul Husain [The Slaying of Husain]
14. Dharbud Danaaneer wad Daraahim [The Minting of Gold and Silver Coins]
15. Kitaabut Taareekh wal Maghaazi wal Mab’ath [The Book of History, Battles and the Awakening]
16. Kitaabus Seerah [The Book of the Life of Nabi Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam]
17. Azwaajun Nabi [The Wives of Nabi Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam]
18. Kitaabu Amril Habashah wal Feel [The Book of the Episode of the Abyssinians and Elephants]
19. Kitaabul Manaakih [The Book of Marriages]
20. Kitaabus Saqeefah wa Bai’ati Abi Bakr [The Book of the Shelter and Allegiance to Abu Bakr]
21. Kitaabu Thikril Athaan [The Book of the Narratives of Athaan]
22. Madaa’i Quraish wal Ansaar fil Qitaa’ wa Wadh’u Umarad Dawaaween wa Tasneeful Qabaail wa Maraatibuha wa Ahsaabuha [The Claims of the Quraish and Ansaar over Sectors and Umar’s Drawing up of the Registers and Compilation of the Tribes, their Ranks and Lineages]
23. At-Targheeb fee Ilmil Maghaazi wa Ghalatur Rijaal [Inspiration to the Knowledge of Battles and the Mistakes of Narrators]
24. Maulidul Hasan wal Husain [The Birth of Hasan and Husain]
25. Kitaabul Aadaab [The Book of Etiquettes]
26. At-Taareekhul Kabeer [The Comprehensive Book of History]
27. Kitaabus Sunnah wal Jamaa’ah wa Thammul Hawaa wa Tarkul Khurooj fil Fitan [The Book of the Sunnah and Jamaa’ah, Reproaching of Self-Desires and Non-Participation in Times of Anarchy]
28. Kitaabul Ikhtilaaf [The Book of Differences]—This book consists of differences between the Maaliki and Hanafi Ulama on certain jurisprudential issues.
29. Futoohush Shaam [The Conquests of Shaam]—The English translation with titles and sub-titles is presented here in the ensuing pages.
For a detailed biography of the author refer to the following sources:
- Tathkiratul Huffaaz, V.1 p.317
- Wafayaatul A’yaan, V.1 p.506
- Taareekhu Baghdad, V.3 p.3-21
- Meezaanul I’tidaal, V.3 p.110
- Baroo Kalimaan, V.1 p.141
- Aadaabul Lughah, V.2 p.147
- Uyoonul Athar, V.1 p.17
- Tahtheebut Tahtheeb, V.9 p.323
- Al-Fihrisatu Ibni Nadeem, V.1 p.97
- Al-A’laam liz Zirikli, V.2 p.311
[From the foreword to the Urdu adaptation of Futoohush Shaam titled Sahaabah-e-Kiraam kê Jangi Ma’rikê.]
 These works are in the Arabic language. We are only aware of the translation of Wafayaatul A’yaan available in the English language.
In the Name of Allah,
The Excessively Compassionate, The Exceedingly Merciful
CHAPTER ONE: MOBILIZATION OF THE ISLAMIC FORCES
“Go forth, whether you are lightly armed or fully equipped, and wage Jihaad in the path of Allah with your wealth and lives.”
All praises are reserved for Allah, the Lord of the Universe.
Salutations and Peace be upon our leader, Muhammad and upon his family and companions, all of them.
The Rule of This Ummah
Imam Waaqidi (May Allah Ta’ala show mercy to him, Aameen) says: “Abu Bakr Bin Hasan Bin Sufyaan Bin Naufal Bin Muhammad Bin Ibrahim Taimi, Muhammad Bin Abdullah Ansaari, Abu Sa’eed the emancipated slave of Hishaam, Maalik Bin Abul Hasan, Isma’eel the emancipated slave of Zubair and Maazin Bin Auf from the Bani Najjaar, all reported the events of Futoohush Shaam [the Conquests of Syria, Jordan, Lebanon and Palestine]. All state: ‘When Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) passed away and Abu Bakr Siddeeq (Radhiyallahu anhu) was appointed the Khaleefah, he put to death during his Khilaafat Musailamah Kath-thaab – the claimant of Nubuwwat – he fought the Banu Hanifah – the renegades – and the Arabs bowed in submission to him.
Then he made up his mind to dispatch his forces to Shaam and he concentrated on fighting the Byzantine Empire. For this he gathered the Sahaabah of Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) in the Masjid. He stood up and addressed them. He glorified Allah Azza wa Jall and thereafter he said: ‘O People! May Allah Ta’ala have mercy upon you. Take note that Allah has distinguished you through Islam. He has made you of the Ummat of Muhammad (Alaihis Salaatu was Salaam). He has increased your Imaan and Yaqeen and He has given you manifest aid. He has said concerning you:
اَلْيَوْمَ اَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِيْنَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِىْ وَرَضِيْتُ لَكَمُ الْإِسْلاَمَ دِيْناً
“Today I have perfected for you your Deen, I have completed My favour upon you and I am pleased with Islam as your Deen.”
(Surah Maa-idah, Aayat 3)
Be aware that Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) intended to direct his full attention to Shaam, but Allah took him away and chose for him what was by Him. Listen carefully! I have come to the decision of dispatching the soldiers of Islam to Shaam with their families and possessions, for verily Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) informed me of that [intention of his] before his death. He said:
زُوِيَتْ لِىَ الْأَرْضُ فَرَأَيْتُ مَشَارِقَهَا وَمَغَارِبَهَا
وَسَيَبْلُغُ مَلْكُ اُمَّتِىْ مَا زُوِىَ لِىْ مِنْهَا.
“The earth was brought to scale before me. I thus saw its east and its west. And soon my Ummah’s rule will extend to that (portion of the earth) which was scaled down before me.”
Now what do you say?’
They replied: ‘O Khaleefah of Rasoolullah! Order us with your command and dispatch us wherever you wish, for verily Allah Ta’ala has made fardh upon us obedience unto you. Allah Ta’ala has declared:
يأَيُّهَا الَّذِيْنَ آمَنُوْآ أَطِيْعُوا اللهَ وَأَطِيْعُوا الرَّسُوْلَ وَأُولِى الأَمْرِ مِنْكُمْ
“O People of Imaan! Obey Allah, obey the Rasool
and those in authority among you.”
(Surah Nisaa, Aayat 59)
Hazrat Abu Bakr (Radhiyallahu anhu) was overjoyed at this. He descended from the mimbar and wrote letters to the chiefs of Yemen and the inhabitants of Makkah. The contents of all the letters were the same; as follows:
The Letter of Hazrat Abu Bakr (Radhiyallahu Anhu)
‘Bismillahir Rahmanir Raheem
From: Abdullah Ateeq Bin Abi Quhaafah
To: All Muslims
After praises unto Allah and salutations upon Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam) let it be known that I have intended to dispatch an army to Shaam to release it from the clutches of the kuffaar and fussaaq. Whoever among you intends waging Jihaad and fighting in battle should make haste and prepare to obey the King Who is All-Knowing.’
He thereafter wrote the following Aayat-e-Shareefah:
إِنْفِرُوْا خِفَافًا وَّثِقَالاً وَّجَاهِدُوْا بِأَمْوَالِكُمْ وَأَنْفُسِكُمْ فِىْ سَبِيْلِ اللهِ
“Go forth, whether you are lightly armed or fully equipped,
and wage Jihaad in the path of Allah with your wealth and lives.”
Hazrat Abu Bakr (Radhiyallahu anhu) prepared several copies of the letter and dispatched them with Anas Bin Maalik, the attendant of Rasoolullah (Sallallahu alaihi wa sallam). He thereafter waited in anticipation of the replies and the armies.