Question: Ladies go for Tabligh Jamaat work with their husbands or with their mahrams. What is the ruling of women going out in customary Jamaat work fully observing hijaab and purdah and remaining within the proper Shar’i confines and limits? The customary practice germane to Ladies Jamaat is that all those women going out in Jamaat have their mahrams with them and they travel observing fully the Shar’i Code of Purdah.
Arrangements for the lodging and meals for these women are made at a home of Purdah where no male is allowed to visit at all. The males (accompanying the Ladies Jamaat stay over at the local Musjid or elsewhere completely away from the ladies. The ladies engage in tabligh to women and the males to men.
Is this scenario permissible or not? If there is some other way of permissibility or if it is impermissible then kindly elaborate. Please provide a clear, detailed and authoritative response with references. It will be much appreciated. (Abdul Qayyoom Qasmi, Principal Darul Uloom Maseehiyyah, Farmani, Muzaffar Nagar)
Answer (Wabillaahit Taufeeq):
Allah Ta’ala has made obligatory upon males to learn the Ahkaam of the Deen and teach it to their females.
“All of you are shepherds and all of you shall be questioned about his flock.” (Bukhari)
Women have not been tasked with Da’wah and Tabligh. They have been excluded from Da’wah, Tabligh, Imaamat and Khilaafat. They have been instructed to remain in their homes and in Purdah.
“And remain firmly in your homes.” (Qur’aan)
Women have only been granted permission to emerge from their homes at times of need and in emergencies. It is reported from Hadhrat Ibn Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) that Nabi (sallallahu alaihi wasallam) said:
“Women have no share in emerging (from their homes) except in emergencies.” (Tabaraani—Mu’jamul Kabeer)
This age is full of fitnah. On account of the preponderance of Fitnah, women were debarred from coming to the Musjid of the locality even with their mahrams during the Khilaafat of Hadhrat Umar (radhiyallahu anhu) upon the mutual consultation of the Sahaabah. Thus, how can it be permissible for them (ladies) to go out in Tabligh Jamaat work, which is a mustahab act, when in this age fitnah is pandemic in our societies? They had been debarred (from the Masaajid) on the basis of this Hadith which is reported in Bukhari Shareef: “Hadhrat Aishah (radhiyallahu anha) said:
‘Had Rasulullah (Sallallahu alaihi wasallam) witnessed what women have introduced he would have banned them from the Musjid just as the women of Bani Isra’eel were banned.’ ‘Were they really banned,’ the narrator asked? ‘Yes, they were,” Hadhrat Aishah replied. (Bukhari, 1/120)
There is no precedent in the Khairul Quroon of women being dispatched on Da’wah and Tabligh, whereas the need during that time was greater in view of the large number of men and women entering the fold of Islam.
The founder of the Tabligh Jamaat, Hadhrat Maulana Ilyaas Sahib went to Mufti A’zam Hadhrat Maulana Kifaayatullah Sahib on three occasions for this purpose; of seeking permission to send women on Tabligh missions. On all three occasions Hadhrat Mufti Sahib forbade him. Hence Hadhrat Maulana Ilyaas Sahib never sent women out in Jamaat.. Likewise, his son, Hazratji – Hadhrat Moulana Muhammad Yusuf Sahib – never organized women’s Jamaats.
Women should confine their activities to meeting once or twice weekly at a home in the locality having Deeni Ta’leem. This will be efficacious in inculcating Deeni fervour. This was the time-honoured Tareeqah of our Aslaaf (Predecessors).
Women should be cautious in leaving the town and journeying to far-off places. In spite of the presence of mahrams there are ghair mahrams also present on the journey. For example, a group of ten women set off on journey with their respective mahrams. Now in this scenario each woman has one mahram with the remaining nine men travelling along being ghair mahrams. This is lack of caution. The Ahaadith have prohibited travelling with ghair mahrams.
And Allah knows best.
Habeebur Rahmaan (Afallahu anhu)
Mufti, Darul Uloom Deoband
Zainul Islam Qasmi
Deputy Mufti, Darul Uloom Deoband