Adhaan the call to Salaat
1. If the adhaan is being called out for any salaat, it is necessary that it be given in the time of that salaat. If the adhaan is given before the commencement of the time, it will not be valid. When the time enters, the adhaan will have to be repeated irrespective of whether it was forfajr salaat or any other salaat.
2. The adhaan and the iqaamah have to be in Arabic and in exactly the same words as conveyed to us from Rasulullah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam. If the adhaan is given in any other language, or in Arabic but in different words; then this will not be valid even if, upon hearing it, people understand it as adhaan and the purpose of adhaan is fulfilled (i.e. even if people respond to the adhaan by coming to offer their salaat).
3. It is necessary for the mu’azzin to be a male. The adhaan of a female is not proper. If a woman gives adhaan, it should be repeated. If salaatis offered without it being repeated, it will be as if salaat was offered without any adhaan.
4. It is necessary that the mu’azzin be of sound intellect. If a child who has not reached the age of understanding, a lunatic or an intoxicated person gives adhaan; it will not be considered.
5. The sunnah method of calling out adhaan is that the person calling out adhaan should be pure from the major and minor impurities. He should go to an elevated place away from the musjid, face the qiblah, insert his forefingers into both his ears, and say the following words as loud as possible without overstraining himself: Allahu Akbar four times, Ash hadu an la ilaaha illa Allahu twice, Ash hadu anna Muhammadar Rasulullah twice, Hayya alas salaat twice, Hayya alal falaah twice, Allahu Akbar twice again, and La ilaaha illa Allahu once. When saying Hayya alas salaat, he should turn his face towards the right in such a way that his chest and feet do not turn away from the qiblah. When saying Hayya alal falaah, he should turn his face towards the left in such a way that his chest and feet do not turn away from the qiblah.
In the fajr adhaan, after saying Hayya alal falaah, he should add the words as-Salaatu khayrum minan naum two times.
The total phrases of adhaan are therefore fifteen while there are seventeen words for the adhaan of fajr.
The words of the adhaan should not be uttered in a singing tune, nor should they be uttered in such a way that some of the words are said loudly while others are said softly.
After saying Allahu Akbar twice, he should wait to the extent that the person who is listening to the adhaan can reply to it. Apart from Allahu Akbar, even for the other words, he should wait for a similar period before continuing with the next words.
6. The method of iqaamah is also the same. The difference is that it is preferable to call out the adhaan outside the musjid, while the iqaamah is called out inside. Adhaan is called out in a loud voice while iqaamah is called out in a comparatively softer voice. In iqaamah one does not say as-salaatu khairun minan naum. Instead, for all the five salaats one has to say Qad qaamatis salaat two times. When saying the iqaamah one does not have to insert one’s fore-fingers into one’s ears. The reason for inserting the fingers into the ears is to raise the voice, and this is not necessary when saying the iqaamah. In the iqaamah, it is not necessary to turn right and left when saying Hayya alas salaat and Hayya alal falaah. However, some jurists are in favour of this.