Rules Related to the Times of Salaat
1. In summer, one should not hasten towards reading zuhr salaat. It is mustahab to offer zuhr salaat after the intense heat rays elapse. In winter, it is preferable to offer zuhr salaat at the beginning of zuhr time.
2. Asr salaat should be delayed till such a time that if after the entry of asr time one wishes to offer any nafl salaat, he can do so, because it is not permissible to offer any nafl salaat after having offered asr salaat irrespective of whether it is in summer or in winter. However, one should not delay to such an extent that the sun turns yellow and its rays change in colour. It is mustahab to hasten towards offering maghrib salaat and to offer it immediately after sunset.
3. The person who is in the habit of waking up for tahajjud salaat in the latter part of the night and has full confidence of definitely waking up; then it is better for him to offer his witr salaat after having offered his tahajjud salaat. But if he is not confident of waking up and fears that he will remain asleep; then he should offer his witr salaat after his eshaa salaat before going to sleep.
4. It is preferable to delay the fajr, zuhr and maghrib salaats on a cloudy day, while it is mustahab to offer asr salaat a bit early.
5. No salaat is valid at the times of sunrise, mid-day and sunset. However, if asr salaat has not been offered as yet, then it could be offered even at the time of sunset. In these three times, even sajdah-e-tilaawat is makruh and not permissible.
6. It is makruh to offer any nafl salaat after offering fajr salaat until sunrise. However, the offering of any qada salaat and sajdah-e-tilaawat before the sun rises is permissible. But once the sun rises, then as long as some light does not appear, even qada salaat will not be permissible. Similarly, it is not permissible to offer any nafl salaat after the asr salaat. However, qada salaat and sajdah-e-tilaawat is permissible. But once the rays of the sun become weak or faint, then even this is not permissible.
7. At fajr time, a person only offered his fard salaat out of fear that the sun will rise very soon. So as long as the sun does not rise considerably and does not get quite bright, the sunnah salaat should not be offered. Once some light appears, sunnah salaat and any other salaat may be offered.
8. Once dawn breaks and fajr time enters, then apart from the two rakaats sunnah and two rakaats fard of fajr salaat, it is makruh to offer any other nafl salaat. However, it is permissible to offer any qada salaat and to make sajdah-e-tilaawat.
9. If the sun rises while one is offering one’s fajr salaat then this salaat will not be valid. When the sun becomes a bit bright, one should make qada. But if the sun sets while one is offering asr salaat, then this salaat will be valid and there will be no need to make qada of it.
10. It is makruh to sleep before offering esha salaat. One should offer ones salaat and then sleep. However, if due to some sickness or travelling, one is very tired and tells someone to wake him up at the time of salaat and that person promises to wake him up; then in this case it will be permissible to sleep.
11. It is mustahab for men to offer fajr salaat at a time when the light spreads considerably and there is so much of time left that in the salaat itself about forty to fifty verses could be read properly; and after offering the salaat, if for some reason one has to repeat the salaat, then in the same way he could read forty to fifty verses again. It is mustahab for women to offer fajr salaat throughout the year when it is dark. And it is mustahab for men and women who are performing hajj to offer fajr salaat when it is dark when they are in Muzdalifah.
12. The time for jumu’ah salaat is the same as the time for zuhr salaat. The only difference is that it is mustahab to delay zuhr salaat in summer irrespective of whether it is hot or not. And it is mustahab to offer zuhr salaat early in winter, while it is sunnah to offer jumu’ah salaat early throughout the year. This is the opinion of all the ulama.
13. The time for the eid salaats commences when the sun rises considerably and remains until just before mid-day. The sun rising considerably means that the yellowness of the sun disappears and its light is so bright that one cannot look at it. In establishing this, the jurists have said that it must rise to the extent of one spear. It is mustahab to offer the eid salaats early. However, the salaat of Eid ul-Fitr should be delayed slightly after the time commences.
14. When the imam gets up from his place to perform the khutbah of jumu’ah, the eid salaats or for hajj, etc. then it is makruh to offer any salaat in these times. It is also makruh to offer any salaat at the time of the khutbah of nikah or at the time of the completion of the Quran.
15. It is also makruh to offer any salaat when the iqaamah for a fard salaat is being called out. However, if one has not offered the sunnah of fajr salaat and one is sure or convinced that one will get one rakaat with the congregation, then it will not be makruh to offer the sunnah of fajr salaat. And the one who has already commenced with any sunnah-e-mu’akkadah, should complete it first.
It is makruh to offer any nafl salaat prior to the salaats of eid irrespective of whether one offers it at home or at the eid-gah. As for offering it after the eid salaats, it will only be makruh to offer it at the eid-gah.