[Purifying with dust or sand where water is not available]
If someone is in a jungle and does not know where water could be found, nor is there anyone from whom he could find out, then in such a case he should make tayammum.
But if he found someone who pointed out water within 1.6 kilometres and he is confident that this person is speaking the truth, or the person himself feels confident of finding water within 1.6 kilometres – then it will be necessary to search for water in such a way that it does not cause any harm or inconvenience to him or to his fellow companions. It is not permissible to make tayammum without searching for water. If one is definite that there is water within 1.6 kilometres, it will be obligatory to bring the water.
If water is available, but it is beyond 1.6 kilometres, it is not obligatory to go for the water. It will be sufficient to make tayammum.
If a person is about 1.6 kilometres from an inhabited area and water cannot be found before that, it will still be permissible to make tayammum. This is irrespective of whether one is a musaafir (traveller) or just came out for a short distance.
If one found a well on the way, but there is no bucket or rope to draw the water nor is there anyone from whom he can ask, even then tayammum will be permissible.
If water was found somewhere, but it is so little that the face, hands and feet can only be washed one time each, then tayammum will not be permissible. Instead, these parts should be washed once and masah of the head should be made. The other sunnah acts of wudhu could be left out. But if even this much is not available, tayammum should be made.
If, due to some illness, water is harmful and wudhu or ghusl will increase the illness or delay its healing, tayammum will be permissible. But if cold water is harmful and warm water is not, it will be obligatory to use warm water. However, if warm water is not available, tayammum may be performed.
If water is near, i.e. definitely within 1.6 kilometres, then it is not permissible to make tayammum. It is obligatory to bring the water and make wudhu. It is not permissible for women to abstain from going for the water and sufficing with tayammum merely because of shyness or hijaab. Hijaab of this sort which causes one to forego any ruling of the Shariah is not permissible and haraam. It will be obligatory for her to cover herself with a veil or sheet and bring the water. However, she should not make wudhu nor open her face and hands in front of others.
As long as wudhu cannot be made, one can continue making tayammum. No matter how many days pass, one should not allow any doubts or misgivings to creep in. Whatever purity is obtained from wudhu and ghusl, the same purity is obtained from tayammum. One should not think that by making tayammum the same purity is not obtained.
If water is being sold and one does not have the money, tayammum is permissible. If one has the money and it is more than what one will require for the fare, freight etc. of the journey, then to purchase the water will be obligatory. However, if the price of the water is so exorbitant that no one can afford it, then it will not be obligatory to purchase the water.
Tayammum will be permissible. If one does not have any spare money, it will not be obligatory to purchase the water.
If it is extremely cold somewhere and there is a fear of dying or falling ill if one takes a bath and there is no blanket or any such warm thing with which one could warm one’s self after bathing, then in such dire circumstances tayammum could be made.