SURAH DUHA – Once the finger of Nabi صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَم was injured and began to bleed. He remarked: “You are but a finger that is bleeding; whatever pain you are feeling is in the path of Allah تعالى.” (Bukhari)

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

1.By the morning light!

2. And by the night when it envelops!

3. Your Lord has not forsaken you nor is He displeased.

4. The Hereafter is certainly much better for you than this world.

5. Your Lord will soon give you so that you will be pleased.

6. Did He not find you an orphan and granted you shelter?

7. And He found you uninformed and guided you.

8. And He found you poor and made you independent. 9. So, do not oppress the orphan …

9…. and do not scold the beggar.

10…And proclaim the bounties of your Lord.

1.By the morning light!

2. And by the night when it envelops!

3. Your Lord has not forsaken you nor is He displeased.

4. The Hereafter is certainly much better for you than this world.

5. Your Lord will soon give you so that you will be pleased.

6. Did He not find you an orphan and granted you shelter?

7. And He found you uninformed and guided you.

8. And He found you poor and made you independent. 9. So, do not oppress the orphan …

9…. and do not scold the beggar.

10…And proclaim the bounties of your Lord.

Circumstance of Revelation

Once the finger of Nabi صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَم was injured and began to bleed. He remarked: “You are but a finger that is bleeding; whatever pain you are feeling is in the path of Allah تعالى.” (Bukhari)

After this incident revelation was delayed for a few days. The Quraish of Makkah began mocking at him saying that his God had cast him aside and had become angry with him. Upon this, Surah Duha was revealed where in Allah تعالى explained that He had not deserted His Messenger.

Verse 1: By the morning light!

Allah تعالى takes an oath on the early morning as the sun is rising. This is the time when light replaces darkness and when man, usually, begins his daily actions. The rising of the sun in its purity, serenity, magnificence, uniformity and beauty points to Allah تعالى’ greatness as the Creator.

Verse 2: And by the night when it envelops!

Allah تعالى takes an oath on the dead of night. This is the time of quiet and solitude; a time when darkness encompasses everything. The change of light into darkness with the coming of night does not mean that Allah تعالى is angry with His servants. In a similar way, the delay in revelation for a few days is no proof that Allah تعالى is angry with His chosen Messenger.

Verse 3:Your Lord has not forsaken you nor is He displeased.

Allah تعالى addresses Nabi صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَم saying that He has not forsaken him nor is He displeased with him. Allah تعالى reassures Nabi صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَم that His love, assistance and forgiveness has not left him. This verse served as consolation to Nabi صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَم for the harsh words which the non-Muslims had hurled at him.

Verse 4: The Hereafter is certainly much better for you than this world.

This verse can have two meanings depending on the meaning of the words

“aakhirah” and “ula”:

a. If “aakhirah” is taken to mean the Hereafter, the verse means that those who mocked at Nabi صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَم would realise the folly of their words since he would be victorious in this world and the Hereafter.

b. If “aakhirah” is taken to mean the latter portion and “ula” the earlier portion, the verse means that Nabi صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَم status was being continuously elevated. His future condition would always be better than his previous condition in terms of knowledge, closeness to Allah تعالى , worldly honour, leadership, etc.

Verse 5: Your Lord will soon give you so that you will be pleased.

Allah تعالى mentions here that he would give Nabi صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَمم so much that he would become pleased and contented. The verse does not mention what would be given to Nabi صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَم. Thus, in a general sense, it could mean that Islam would become dominant in the world, it would spread, its enemies would be defeated, and so forth. It could also mean that Allah تعالى would honour Nabi صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَم in the Hereafter with many bounties such as the river of Kawthar, etc. It may also mean that Allah تعالى would please Nabi صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَم by allowing him to intercede for every one of his followers.

Nabi صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَم mentioned: “Allah تعالى would accept my intercession for my followers until such a time when He would ask , ‘O Mohammad! Are you pleased now?’ Then I would reply, ‘I am pleased.’ (Tabarani)

It has also been narrated that Nabi صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَم once began to weep regarding the forgiveness of his followers. Jibraeel came to him and consoled him saying that Allah تعالى would please him regarding his followers. (Muslim)

Verse 6: Did He not find you an orphan and granted you shelter?

In the next three verses Allah تعالى explains three outward favours which He bestowed to Nabi صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَم . Firstly, Nabi صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَم was an orphan. His father had passed away before he was born and his mother passed away when

he was a young boy. Allah تعالى placed him in the care of his grandfather, Abdul Muttalib and then his uncle, Abu Taalib. Allah تعالى cared for him so much that He made them love him more than their own children.

Verse 7: And He found you uninformed and guided you.

Nabi صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَم did not know about the laws of Allah تعالى before receiving revelation. Once he became a Messenger, Allah تعالى taught him and guided him by His book and teachings so that he became a light of guidance for all of humanity.

Verse 8: And He found you poor and made you independent.
Nabi صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَم was poor and Allah تعالى made him rich. This began when Nabi صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَم was employed by Khadija . He later married her and she placed all her wealth at his service. The verse could also mean that Allah تعالى made him completely independent. He felt at ease and content with what Allah تعالى had given him. He did not fear poverty, hence he distributed wealth freely.

Verse 9: So, do not oppress the orphan …

Having mentioned three bounties Allah تعالى now commands Nabi صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَم
with three things in order to express his gratitude to Allah تعالى . Firstly, an orphan’s wealth and rights should not be usurped or violated due to his young age or weakness.
Nabi صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَم repeatedly encouraged that orphans be treated with kindness and mercy.

Verse 10: … and do not scold the beggar.

This second command can have two meanings:

a. A person asking for help or assistance should not be chased away or addressed in a harsh manner. If one can render assistance one should do so. If one cannot then one should excuse oneself with soft and kind words.

b. A person asking a question in order to increase his knowledge should not be switched off or silenced. He should be answered courteously.

Verse 11: And proclaim the bounties of your Lord.

Thirdly, Nabi صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَم was commanded to mention the favours of Allah تعالى

to the people as a form of gratitude.

It is of paramount importance that a person expresses gratitude for every bounty he has been given by Allah تعالى . For the bounty of wealth this is achieved by spending it in the path of Allah تعالى . For the bounty of bodily strength one should do good deeds. Regarding the bounty of knowledge one should teach others.

However, a person who does not have control over his base desires and may end up boasting should not mention his good to people.

Lessons

1. One of Nabi’s صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَم greatest worries was the success of every one of his followers. It is our belief that he will intercede for every Muslim in the Hereafter. The bare minimum that Muslims can do in return for this blessing is to lead their lives according to his Sunnah.

2. We should not oppress orphans and beggars.

3. We should express our gratitude to Allah تعالى for every one of His bounties by using them in the manner prescribed by Him.

4. Nabi صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَم was protected, consoled and taught by Allah تعالى . His system and teachings should, therefore, be regarded as perfect.